In common usage, randomness is the apparent or actual lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are, by definition, unpredictable, but if the probability distribution is known, the frequency of different outcomes over repeated events (or "trials") is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will tend to occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is not haphazardness; it is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome. Randomness applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy.
The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of random variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the various applications of randomness.
Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties. Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input (such as from random number generators or pseudorandom number generators), are important techniques in science, particularly in the field of computational science. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasi-random number generators.
Random selection, when narrowly associated with a simple random sample, is a method of selecting items (often called units) from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population. For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, a random selection mechanism would choose a red marble with probability 1/10. Note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable, a random selection mechanism requires equal probabilities for any item to be chosen. That is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen, then we can say the selection process is random.According to Ramsey theory, pure randomness is impossible, especially for large structures. Mathematician Theodore Motzkin suggested that "while disorder is more probable in general, complete disorder is impossible". Misunderstanding this can lead to numerous conspiracy theories. Cristian S. Calude stated that "given the impossibility of true randomness, the effort is directed towards studying degrees of randomness". It can be proven that there is infinite hierarchy (in terms of quality or strength) of forms of randomness.

You do not have permission to view the full content of this post. Log in or register now.
  1. R

    Help YøùTùbé Buffer/loading| Converge ISP

    Hello mamser, may remedyo po ba kayo sa Buffer/Loading issue ng YT sa Converge ISP. So far sa mga devices sa bahay laging may ganyan na problema(not sure kung related yung yt adblock). Pag naka data naman sakto lang talaga na may buffer at mahina data sa area ko. Sana may maka tulong. salamat
  2. P

    Random Advice for the Day

    Pag may problema ka sumuko ka nalang,kaya ka nahihirapan eh laban ka nang laban.🥴
  3. Z

    Referral Mga paps try nyo na to random bigayan

    Download nyo muna apps simple lang yong task palagay na din ng code no code no myster box Code: q65jmv ROFAN - Earn Real Bitcoin - Apps on Google Play Chambahan lang pag naka 200 Rofan ka pwede muna wí†hdráw convert mo sa BTC Credits to kalawagon
  4. K

    Help Random question

    What is mental health awareness?
  5. T

    Help Help po. I've been receiving random otps.

    Kahapon pa ako nakaka tanggap ng mga gantong otp requests Medyo natatakot ako kasi baka mahulaan nila yung otp and magamit nila yung number ko. Maingat naman ako online at di ko basta basta nilalagay number ko sa kahit anong input fields. Na feel ko kagabi na baka bot lang to na nadaan yung...
  6. J

    Random Memes

  7. L

    Trivia Random Facts #46

    Fact: There were active volcanoes on the moon when dinosaurs were alive
  8. L

    Random Facts #45

    Fact: Bananas grow upside down
  9. L

    Trivia Random Facts #44

    Fact: Only a quarter of the Sahara Desert is sandy
  10. L

    Random Facts #43

    Fact: Thanks to 3D printing, NASA can basically email tools to astronauts
  11. L

    Trivia Random Facts #42

    Fact: Cows don’t have upper front teeth
  12. L

    Trivia Random Facts #41

    Fact: The man with the world’s deepest voice can make sounds humans can’t hear
  13. L

    Trivia Random Facts #40

    Fact: Most Disney characters wear gloves to keep animation simple
  14. L

    Trivia Random Facts #39

    Fact: Turkeys can blush
  15. L

    Trivia Random Facts #38

    Fact: That tiny pocket in jeans was designed to store pocket watches
  16. L

    Trivia Random Facts #37

    Fact: Blue whales eat half a million calories in one mouthful
  17. L

    Trivia Random Facts #36

    Fact: Cats have fewer toes on their back paws
  18. L

    Trivia Random Facts #35

    Fact: Some octopus species lay 56,000 eggs at a time
  19. L

    Trivia Random Facts #35

    Fact: The longest English word is 189,819 letters long
  20. L

    Trivia Random Facts #34

    Fact: Armadillo shells are bulletproof
  21. L

    Trivia Random Facts #33

    Fact: Peanuts aren’t technically nuts
  22. L

    Trivia Random Facts #32

    Fact: Samsung tests phone durability with a 🍑-shaped robot
  23. L

    Trivia Random Facts #31

    Fact: Johnny Appleseed’s fruits weren’t for eating
  24. L

    Trivia Random Facts #30

    Fact: The first oranges weren’t orange
  25. L

    Trivia Random Facts #29

    Fact: Some fungi create zombies, then control their minds
  26. L

    Trivia Random Facts #28

    Fact: McDonald’s once made bubblegum-flavored broccoli
  27. L

    Trivia Random Facts #27

    Fact: The first time the word “period” was used on TV in reference to menstruation was 1985
  28. L

    Trivia Random Facts #26

    Fact: Professional athletes used to perform in vaudeville during the off-season
  29. L

    Trivia Random Facts #25

    Fact: Lemons float, but limes sink
  30. L

    Trivia Random Facts #24

    Fact: Japan has one vending machine for every 40 people
  31. L

    Trivia Random Facts #23

    Fact: The first person processed at Ellis Island was a 15-year-old girl from Ireland
  32. L

    Trivia Random Facts #22

    Fact: People once ate arsenic to improve their skin
  33. L

    Trivia Random Facts #21

    Fact: It takes a drop of water 90 days to travel the entire Mississippi River
  34. L

    Trivia Random Facts #20

    Fact: The brand name Spam is a combination of “spice” and “ham”
  35. L

    Trivia Random Facts #19

    Fact: Wally Amos is responsible for making more than just cookies famous
  36. L

    Trivia Random Facts #18

    Fact: Human beings can use only a small fraction of Earth’s water
  37. L

    Trivia Random Facts #17

    Fact: Cleveland was once the country’s fifth-largest city
  38. L

    Trivia Random Facts #16

    Fact: There’s enough gold inside Earth to coat the planet
  39. L

    Trivia Random Facts #15

    Fact: The Golden Girls was supposed to have a different theme song
  40. L

    Trivia Random Facts #14

    Fact: A one-way trip on the Trans-Siberian Railway involves crossing 3,901 bridges
  41. L

    Trivia Random Facts #13

    Fact: The Philippines consists of 7,641 islands
  42. L

    Trivia Random Facts #11

    Fact: German chocolate cake was invented in Texas The “German” part of German chocolate cake comes from an American man—not a European country. Specifically, it’s named after Sam German, who in 1852 created the formula for a mild dark baking chocolate bar for Baker’s Chocolate Company, which...
  43. L

    Trivia Random Facts #10

    Fact: The world’s first animated feature film was made in Argentina
  44. L

    Trivia Random Facts #9

    Fact: The cornea is one of only two parts of the human body without blood vessels
  45. L

    Trivia Random Facts #8

    Fact: There are parts of Africa in all four hemispheres
  46. L

    Trivia Random Facts #7

    Fact: The circulatory system is more than 60,000 miles long
  47. L

    Trivia Random Facts #6

    Fact: The bumblebee bat is the world’s smallest mammal
  48. L

    Trivia Random Facts #5

    Fact: Sudan has more pyramids than any country in the world
  49. L

    Trivia Random Facts #4

    Fact: Dead skin cells are a main ingredient in household dust.
  50. L

    Trivia Random Facts #3

    Fact: The world’s oldest wooden wheel has been around for more than 5,000 years