Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文, 16 October 1841 – 26 October 1909), born as Hayashi Risuke and also known as Hirofumi, Hakubun and briefly during his youth as Itō Shunsuke) was a Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan. He was also a leading member of the genrō, a group of senior statesmen that dictated Japanese policy during the Meiji era.
A London-educated samurai of the Chōshū Domain and a central figure in the Meiji Restoration, Itō Hirobumi chaired the bureau which drafted the Constitution for the newly formed Empire of Japan. Looking to the West for inspiration, Itō rejected the United States Constitution as too liberal and the Spanish Restoration as too despotic. Instead, he drew on British and German models, particularly the Prussian Constitution of 1850. Dissatisfied with Christianity's pervasiveness in European legal precedent, he replaced such religious references with those rooted in the more traditionally Japanese concept of a kokutai or "national polity" which hence became the constitutional justification for imperial authority.
During the 1880s, Itō emerged as the most powerful figure in the Meiji government. By 1885, he became the first Prime Minister of Japan, a position he went on to hold four times (thereby making his tenure one of the longest in Japanese history). Even out of office as the nation's head of government, he continued to wield enormous influence over Japan's policies as a permanent imperial adviser, or genkun, and the President of the Emperor's Privy Council. A staunch monarchist, Itō favored a large, all-powerful bureaucracy which answered solely to the Emperor and opposed the formation of political parties. His third term as Prime Minister was ended in 1898 by the opposition's consolidation into the Kenseitō party, prompting him to found the Rikken Seiyūkai party to counter its rise. In 1901, he resigned his fourth and final ministry upon tiring of party politics.
On the world stage, Itō presided over an ambitious foreign policy. He strengthened diplomatic ties with the Western powers including Germany, the United States and especially the United Kingdom. In Asia, he oversaw the First Sino-Japanese War and negotiated the surrender of China's ruling Qing dynasty on terms aggressively favourable to Japan, including the annexation of Taiwan and the release of Korea from the Chinese Imperial tribute system. While expanding his country's claims in Asia, Itō sought to avoid conflict with the Russian Empire through the policy of Man-Kan kōkan – the proposed surrender of Manchuria to Russia's sphere of influence in exchange for recognition of Japanese hegemony in Korea. However, in a diplomatic visit to Saint Petersburg in November 1901, Itō found Russian authorities completely unreceptive to such terms. Consequently, Japan's incumbent Prime Minister, Katsura Tarō, elected to abandon the pursuit of Man-Kan kōkan, which resulted in an escalation of tensions culminating in the Russo-Japanese War.
After Japanese forces emerged victorious over Russia, the ensuing Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 made Itō the first Japanese Resident-General of Korea. Despite initially supporting the sovereignty of the indigenous Joseon monarchy, he ultimately consented to the total annexation of Korea in response to pressure from the increasingly powerful Imperial Army. Shortly thereafter, he resigned as Resident-General in 1909 and assumed office once again as President of the Imperial Privy Council. Four months later, Itō was assassinated by Korean-independence activist and nationalist An Jung-geun in Manchuria. The annexation process was formalised by another treaty the following year after Ito's death. Through his daughter Ikuko, Itō was the father-in-law of politician, intellectual and author Suematsu Kenchō.

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  1. R

    Help Legit po ba ito?

  2. J

    Help Worth it ba ang McBook na ito?

    Hi mga ka-PHC. Windows user ako simula pa nung una kaya wala akong idea sa specs/performance ng mcbooks. Worth it ba bilhin ang mcbook na to with this specs? ang worry ko kasi baka from 2017 pa siya and baka di na supported ng mga latest drivers. I need your advice, guys! Thanks
  3. L

    Ganito pala ito?

  4. C

    Gomo help! bago lang po ito.. laging na wawala ang signal

  5. E

    Ok lang ba daw ito?

    Kung may bf/gf kayo ok lang ba may i myday daw sila pero request lang daw nung may crush sa kanya?
  6. S

    Help Alam niyo Title ng Movie na ito?

    Nakita ko lang sa FB. Mukhang maganda
  7. W

    Saan kaba tunay na magaling? Paano mo mahahanap ito?

    yung alam mo kung ano talent mo at saan ka magaling .. yung nag eenjoy ka sa ginagawa mo at the same time kumikita ka .. paano ba ito mahahanp? sabi nila mahahnap mo daw ito .. isipin mo na ano yung gusto mo gawin sa buhay mo kung maraming kang pera .. kung walang hadlang sau ..ANO yung...
  8. B

    Five star sa akin ito. Hinde tinipid sa sauce

  9. H

    Help Normal po ba ito?

    Grabe mag init even tho google at Microsoft lang nakabukas kabubukas lang nag iinit agad
  10. N

    Help Anung editing apps or Software ito??

    Baka po may nakaka-alam kung anung editting apps or software yung ginamit dito sa mga letters and designs? Need lang para kay Misis.
  11. R

    Help Totoo kaya ito? NANALO AKO NG KOTSE! Sa Apower.

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  12. J

    Help Goods kaya ito?

    May nakita akong sale ngayon, 33% off. Goods kaya ito? Hindi ko mahanap same specs sa YøùTùbé kya nahirapan ako maghanap ng review acer aspire 5 *Win 11 *Intel core i5 -1135G7 *8gb ram • 512gb ssd *15.6 fhd screen * Nvidia GeForce mx350 graphics
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    Globe TM Sumali napod Kau legit ang apps na ito

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  14. S

    Kamote ba ito?

  15. P

    Másáráp ba ito?

  16. S

    Scam ba ito?

    Tanong lang mga kaPHC kung naranasan niyo ito. Wala kasi ako natatandaan naging co-maker ako sa anumang transaksyon. Ni hindi matawagan yang number na yan at ayaw magreply.
  17. G

    Help Laptop namin naka charge pag On bubuksan saglit tas off nanaman paano po kaya ito?

    naka saksak po sya 2hrs na nka charge tas pag On... mag bubukas tas biglang mag ooff ano po kaya problem nito? kulay orange lang po yung nailaw sa kanya
  18. E

    Help Parang Shopee at Lazada po ba ito?

    Nakikita ko na ito matagal na hindi ko pinapansin kase parang sa jbang Bansa.
  19. E

    Help Good News o Bad News na ito?

    Tingin ninyo?
  20. G

    Help Naka USB wifi adapter po ako sa PC naka konek pero No internet paano po kaya ito?

  21. U

    Ano po ito? Signal booster?

    Ano po kaya ito 😅 signal booster po ba ito? Sobrang dami na po kasi ang nag bobooster sa amin dito, kaya putol-putol yung tawag at hindi na magkaintindihan, parang robot kung magsalita.
  22. P

    Saang forum ba ito? basta shopee to bigay ko lang sa inyo

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  23. A

    Help Hello po. Mga boss safe po ba ito? 1.6m worth of Gcash from Uniliver

    Hello po. Mga boss safe po ba ito? 1.6m worth of Gcash from Uniliver
  24. J

    Anong font po ito ?

    anong font po ito at paano po po ito nagawa yung sa taas baba transparent naging parang transparent di tulag ng nasagitna na solid white ano mag kabigang font po ba to or settings lang to sa photoshop para maging transparent yung font
  25. M

    Help Ano po ilalagay ko sa documents na to

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  26. S

    Help Paano po ito palitan po?

    Paano ba ito palitan mga lods🥺 itong nakabilog po na red. Patulong po🤗. Thankyou sa makatulong po🥺.
  27. N

    Tutorial Dahil bermonths na...

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  29. M

    Para san t

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  30. T

    Closed Ito pa promo pa try din

  31. T

    Closed Bagong kape na handa ko dito.

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  32. J


    Mga kasama ung psiphon pumapalo pa sya kala ko di na gagana,ito prof.
  33. E


    :sneaky: ano bang ilalagay dito, hehehe.. welcome sakin..
  34. A

    paunang salita

    magandang araw sa lahat ako po ay si Avgvst (di ko tunay na pangalan):p ako po ay napahanga sa website na ito na naglalayong tumulong sa mga katulad kong mahirap. (although sometimes nakakagamit ako ng mga bagong gadgets na naiiwan sa mga jeep or sa bus minsan sa banko, esquenita...