ADF/cofilin is a family of actin-binding proteins associated with the rapid depolymerization of actin microfilaments that give actin its characteristic dynamic instability. This dynamic instability is central to actin's role in muscle contraction, cell motility and transcription regulation.Three highly conserved and highly (70%-82%) identical genes belonging to this family have been described in humans and mice:
CFL1, coding for cofilin 1 (non-muscle, or n-cofilin)
CFL2, coding for cofilin 2 (found in muscle: m-cofilin)
DSTN, coding for destrin, also known as ADF or actin depolymerizing factorActin-binding proteins regulate assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. Cofilin, a member of the ADF/cofilin family is actually a protein with 70% sequence identity to destrin, making it part of the ADF/cofilin family of small ADP-binding proteins. The protein binds to actin monomers and filaments, G actin and F actin, respectively. Cofilin causes depolymerization at the minus end of filaments, thereby preventing their reassembly. The protein is known to sever actin filaments by creating more positive ends on filament fragments. Cofilin/ADF (destrin) is likely to sever F-actin without capping and prefers ADP-actin. These monomers can be recycled by profilin, activating monomers to go back into filament form again by an ADP-to-ATP exchange. ATP-actin is then available for assembly.
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